India aims to become a US$26 trillion economy by 2047, backed by a robust infrastructure push. The 2023-2024 budget allocates US$122 billion for this purpose, signaling significant expansion. This strategic investment acts as a powerful multiplier, which would propel economic growth, create job opportunities, and foster equitable development. However, over half of India’s unfulfilled urban infrastructure needs, reflect potential challenges until 2030. Addressing these challenges requires a monumental investment of about US$4.5 trillion.India’s environmental commitment and infrastructure developmentIndia pledged to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070 during COP26. This commitment requires a 45 percent GDP reduction of the emissions intensity by 2030 and 50 percent of its electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources. The Indian government has launched several key initiatives, including the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP), National Monetisation Pipeline (NMP), PM Gati Shakti plan, and the National Logistics Policy (NLP), to resolve the challenges caused by this ambitious goal. These programmes are integral to India’s growth during Amrit Kaal, a period earmarked for national revitalisation.India’s sustainable infrastructure paradigmSustainable infrastructure systems encompass those designed, implemented, maintained, and eventually decommissioned, focusing on maintaining economic, financial, social, and environmental sustainability, including climate resilience, throughout the project lifespan. This includes a combination of built and natural infrastructure. India requires an infrastructure framework that adheres to these principles of sustainability.To enable a sustainable infrastructure transition, a supportive policy and regulatory frameworks are essential to make these projects bankable, thus attracting a diverse pool of global investors, funds, and multi-lateral agency funding. The expansion of various financial instruments is needed to boost infrastructure growth. Innovative financing methods, such as land value capture, infrastructure investment trusts, road-pricing policies, mapping services fees, maintenance, and retrofitting, could manage the lifetime costs of infrastructure. These strategies enable equitable revenue generation and distribution. Green finance: The engine for sustainable infrastructureGreen finance is crucial in advancing India’s sustainable infrastructure, particularly in energy-efficient buildings, renewable energy, and clean transportation. Despite progress in renewable energy, financing challenges persist. India has invested in financial instruments, such as green bonds, green equity, carbon markets, and trading, to resolve this issue. Such investments channel capital towards environmentally sustainable projects and aid the transition to a low-carbon economy.India marked a significant milestone with the issuance of its first sovereign green bond on January 25, 2023, valued at US$980 million, designated for reducing carbon intensity in the public sector. On 9 February, another bond worth US$968 million was announced. As of April 2023, India issued 63 green bonds, contributing US$8 billion to the global green bond market.The Reserve Bank of India recommends allocating 2.5 percent of annual GDP to green finance, a strategic move to fund sustainable projects. The surge in green bond issuances, including nearly US$21 billion by Indian corporates since 2015 and the US$2 billion sovereign green bond, reflects India’s dedication to environmental sustainability. These efforts align with India’s goals of achieving net-zero emissions by 2070. To support extensive infrastructure and green transition needs, India also focusses on attracting global pension funds, vital for large-scale, long-term projects. This approach complements domestic financing structures and aligns with India’s broader environmental and economic goals.A prime example of sustainable infrastructure and innovative financing is the role of the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund Limited (NIIFL). NIIFL’s India-Japan Fund (IJF), a US$600 million collaboration with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, invests in renewable energy and e-mobility sectors. Involvement in a renewable power company, supplying 100 MW of renewable energy to one of the key aluminium and copper manufacturing companies, displays NIIFL’s focus on environmental sustainability. Further, NIIFL’s investment in one of the automobile companies providing last-mile mobility aligns with India’s commitment to decarbonising the transport sector and dedication to sustainable infrastructure initiatives.Another example is the “India–UK Infrastructure Finance Bridge”, a collaborative initiative between India and the UK, announced during the 12th India-UK Economic and Financial Dialogue. It aims to use expertise and investment to support India’s NIP initiative, focussing on sustainable infrastructure development. This initiative underscores the mutual commitment of both countries to promote sustainable economic growth through enhanced financial and infrastructural cooperation.India’s progress in sustainable infrastructure India is making significant strides in sustainable infrastructure across various sectors. The NLP (2022) has set a new standard in sustainable logistics, introducing eco-friendly packaging, renewable energy integration in supply chains, and robust recycling initiatives. In the realm of transportation, multi-modal logistics parks aim to reduce emissions by 12 percent through the use of larger trucks and increased rail transport. Metro systems in major cities focus on green practices, with platinum-rated green stations and ambitious renewable energy targets. The Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut corridor of the Regional Rapid Transit System plans to use 70 percent solar energy.India has constructed over 700 km of highways using recycled plastic, demonstrating innovative reuse. The Green Highway Policy 2015 has led to the planting of 3.8 crore trees, financed by allocating 1 percent of highway construction costs for this purpose. The “Delhi Decongestion Plan” emphasizes dust-free roads, improved drainage, and eco-friendly materials.Indian Railways is targeting net-zero emissions by 2030 through electrification and biofuel usage. Water efficiency measures, afforestation, and the installation of bio-toilets equipped with advanced regenerative braking systems exemplify this commitment.In the aviation sector, 66 airports operate entirely on green energy, with a goal to include airports by 2024. Carbon neutrality targets are set for AAI-managed airports by 2027, aiming for net-zero emissions by 2030. Major airports, such as Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Bengaluru, have earned high sustainability accreditations.The port sector is not far behind, with the “Harit Sagar” guidelines promoting sustainable development. Ambitious targets include green hydrogen bunkering and increasing reliance on renewable energy. Major ports, such as Paradip, Deendayal, and V.O. 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